We continued our discussion with Elizabeth Somer, registered dietitian and author of Eat Your Way to Happiness, about how extra sugar sneaks into our diets.
What about natural sugars, are they better than added sugar?
You’ve probably heard that all carbohydrates - whether they come from a candy bar, brown rice, or an apple - have 4 calories per gram. That’s only true in theory. Pure carbs from any source are all the same calorie-wise. However, in the real world, carbs are diluted in whole grains, fruits, or starchy vegetables because of the water and fiber. Processed sugary foods often don’t have that fiber and water...they are just concentrated calories. Ounce for ounce pure sugar has about four times more calories than an ounce of cooked rice or an apple slice, because the sugar molecules in real foods are diluted by all the juice and crunch.
To make matters worse, most added sugars are typically in foods that also are dripping with fat, such as cookies, muffins, cakes, cookies, ice cream, candy bars, granola bars, and the like. The calories in fat add up more than twice as fast as those in just pure sugar. The combination of sugar and fat make foods sweet and creamy, which is the ‘kiss of death’ with sugar making fat taste good so we consume even more calories.
Let’s get one thing perfectly clear right now. We are talking ADDED sugar, not NATURAL sugar. You only need to focus on added sugar. Naturally occurring sugars in real foods, like fructose in fresh fruit or lactose in plain milk or yogurt, is not an issue. The tiny amount of sugar in an apple or a glass of milk comes packaged with a ton of nutrients.
[PROPS: handful of jelly beans and can of cola, a small bowl of cooked brown rice, a cut up apple; assortment of cookies ]
When reading food label, how can we tell a natural sugar from an added one?
You can’t. At least not from the nutrition panel on a food label, since companies are required to only provide the total sugar content, not where the sugar came from. So, you must be a sleuth and go to the next best thing - the ingredient list. Even then, sugar comes disguised under a slew of aliases, including:
brown sugar fructose invert sugar raw sugar
corn sweetener fruit juice concentrates maltose rice syrup
corn syrup glucose malt syrup sucrose
crystalline fructose high-fructose corn syrup molasses sugar
dextrose honey maltodextrin syrup
What should be our attack plan when reading labels?
I wish it was that easy! By law, a food’s contents must be listed on the label in descending order from most to least. The nearer to the top of the list, the more of an ingredient is in the food. Manufacturers know you are smart and might check this out. They know sugar will be at the top of the list if they add a big dump of one type of sugar into their foods, and they know you are smart enough to figure that out.
So, they take advantage of a label loop hole: they add different sugars in smaller amounts, which sinks each sugar a little lower on the list, even though the total added sugar content is still massively high. Even a savvy shopper has no way to tally the total amount of sugars when they are buried throughout the ingredient list. For example, a ready-to-eat cereal might have no sugar in the top 3 ingredients, but listed farther down the list is sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup solids, honey, and maltose. Tricky, huh?! (Example: General Mills Oatmeal Crisp ready-to-eat cereal - sugar is in first 3 ingredients and there are more than 10 mentions of sugar throughout list) and/or ingredient list for Kellogg’s Smart Start ready-to-eat cereal has sugar in first 3 ingredients and more than 8 mentions throughout list.)
What can you do?
Here’s a rule of thumb when reading labels on any processed food that comes in a carton, bag, box, pouch, or bottle: Skip any food
1) that contains sugar (or any of its aliases) in the top three ingredients or
2) with several mentions of sugar throughout the list.
On the other hand, don’t ...be fooled by new reduced-sugar foods, such as Frosted Flakes, which have just as many calories and carbs, as their full-sugar counterparts (the sugar has been replaced with more refined flour!).
worry about natural sugars in fruit, vegetables, plain yogurt, or milk, since these sugars come packaged with vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, fiber, and/or protein.
switch to “natural” sugars, such as honey, brown sugar, raw sugar, or turbinado. The dusting of nutrients in these sugars makes nary a dent in your dietary needs. (It takes 15 cups of honey - containing 15,450 calories - to supply the calcium in one cup - 90 calories - of nonfat milk.)
be fooled by healthy-sounding foods, like fruited yogurt, bottled fruit smoothies, granola bars, super-fruit drinks, or by the words “natural” or “organic” on the label.
fall victim to foods labeled as “made with real fruit.” You might see a strawberry or banana on the label, but none in the bag. Whether it’s a breakfast bar or a candy bar, most of these products have little or none of the nutrition, fiber, and phytochemicals of real fruit. Manufacturers put a drop of juice into the product, then flavor it with sugar, oil, and colorings, yet call it fruit.
Same goes for a product that says on the label that it is “made with real fruit juice.” In most cases, added sugar outweighs fruit.
7. How can we cut back on sugar, but still satisfy a sweet tooth?
1. Focus on foods that are the biggest offenders. More than 75% of America’s sugar comes from soda and fruit drinks, candy, sweet baked goods like cookies and muffins, and ice cream. Cut these out of the diet, and most Americans will eliminate up to 78,000 calories and drop up to 20 pounds in a year.
[PROPS: cans of soft drinks, bottles of fruit drinks, candy bars, muffins and croissants and cookies, ice cream]
2. De-sweet recipes. When baking, cut the amount of sugar by 1/4 to 1/3. You won’t even notice the difference.
3. Control temptation. Don’t bring trigger foods into the house. If you can’t say ‘no’ to oatmeal cookies, then leave them at the store. If you are forced to have sugary foods at home, divvy them into individual serving-size baggies and place them out of sight.
4. Stick to the good stuff. Why waste your sugar allowance on foods that aren’t even sweet, like canned chili and a frozen Salisbury steak entree? Skip the junk and focus on small amounts of the best desserts, which are most satisfying, such as a small amount of high-quality chocolate.
5. Frantic for a sugar fix? Then focus on the first one to three bites. This is where the endorphin rush kicks in and the tastebuds are soothed. After that, you’re just pigging out.